I went along as visiting faculty and we shall be returning this October. The following is the second of what will be a series of reports on our observations. Stand in front of the modest square foot stucco house in the Brazilian suburb of Piraquara on the outskirts of Curitiba and watch the grin on the face of Josinete Gomes da Silva, known as Anna, and you begin to glimpse the full value of an extraordinarily innovative program that seamlessly integrates affordable housing with environmental and social values.
Listen as she speaks of the dignity she feels directing the trash collection and recycling operation in this city of 93, that gives jobs to 30 low-income families. On average, the operation collects and processes 60 tons of trash per month with separated materials sold to industry. Profits are shared equally among the 30 families, an unbeatable combination. Then watch the pride on the face of Wilma Miranda De Souza Da Silva as she shows her family's home of four months with its energy efficient refrigerator and lights, bathroom shower, terrazzo tile kitchen floor and her daughter's hand painted flowers on several walls.
Until she first saw the house she was being relocated to, Wilma was quite angry that the city government was forcing her to leave her illegal and frequently flooded house along the Iguacu Canal that feeds the water supply of Curitiba. She had been building the house for her family of eight "with my own hands for 16 years. But hers was one of families to be removed from this fragile environment, location of the largest favela south of Brazil's second largest natural and planted forest with more biodiversity than a rain forest.
The families of Wilma and Anna are only two of the hundreds of families benefiting from a rare government housing program that uniquely integrates affordable housing, public health, new business creation and recycling, a potential model for any government that truly values the life of its citizens and not just the production of housing units.
They own it after 10 years but can't sell it. So far homes are built and occupied out of in construction and more elsewhere. Already the streets are filled with children biking, flying kites and simply playing with a joyful dance in their step. Involved government officials and representatives of Cohapar, the state-owned company developing the program, exhibit as much pride as Wilma and Anna when they speak more of families served than units built.
They seem as astonished as visitors that it truly is possible and makes so much sense to integrate affordable housing, public health, infrastructure upgrade and social improvements. The overall program actually started in a limited way and grew unexpectedly into a powerful collaboration among governmental and social agencies with churches and 20 neighborhood groups all playing a role.
This well-integrated program started with a simple challenge: improve the basic living conditions of numerous poor families. Inthe local public health department wanted simply to evacuate all illegal occupants where electricity, clean water and basic infrastructure did not exist along a canal bringing drinking water into Curitiba. The city of Piraquara then developed a plan that would fix sewage and water infrastructure, develop real streets away from the canal to accommodate new homes and create a greenway in its place.
But ina new federal affordable housing program called My House, My Life changed everything providing subsidies for utilities, social programs and home ownership. The city provides infrastructure and land. Occupants take 10 years to pay for the dwelling with 10 percent of the family income. What started as a critical need to remove squatters from a fragile, flood-prone environment evolved into a multi-layered strategy that can best be understood as a veritable community building strategy that weaves fundamental human needs and physical development into a finely meshed social fabric.
Families are resettled not far from where they are moving from, still close to jobs and mass transit. Infrastructure is improved. Home ownership is advanced. Best of all, displaced family networks -- often a critical support system -- are kept together but away from a risky environment.
Occupants in each new house are assigned to a local heath clinic where regular check ups are scheduled.Off grid land for sale by owner
Both the health and education departments check on families making sure monthly health appointments are kept and kids are in school. If getting to the health facility is difficult, home visits are made. A program called Curitibano Mother provides monthly visits by a public health nurse if someone in the household is pregnant.
But this strategy is being applied both to the mile-long canal stretch and the adjacent much larger "irregular" neighborhood where occupants do not yet own their homes. Several meters in from the canal, deteriorated housing is being modestly upgraded, ownership deeds are being secured for occupants so they become property owners and infill houses are replacing the scattered homes too decayed to repair. Dirt paths are being converted to real streets with underground conduits for water, sewage and electricity and the whole neighborhood is being integrated into the larger city, especially through mass transit.
Through these layers of change, people who never felt they were part of society are now integrated into it.A favela typically comes into being when squatters occupy vacant land at the edge of a city and construct shanties of salvaged or stolen materials.
Some have identified the origins of the favela in the Brazilian communities formed by impoverished former slaves in the late 19th century, but it was the great wave of migration from the countryside to the cities from the s to the s that was primarily responsible for the proliferation of favelas in Brazil. Poor and confronted with exorbitant costs for scarce land and housing, those rural migrants had little choice but to become squatters.
From to the number of people living in favelas in Rio de Janeiro alone increased from aboutto more thanand by the early 21st century it was estimated that there were as many as 1, favelas there.
There are a variety of theories regarding how and when the term favela was first applied to squatter communities.Insert data into multiple tables using entity framework in mvc
It seems likely that it was taken from the name of a plant Jatropha phyllacantha native to rural northeastern Brazil. Favelas are located most often on the periphery of large cities. Some of the best-known favelas are those that cling to steep hillsides in Rio de Janeiro.
Favela housing generally begins with makeshift structures fashioned from wood scraps and daub.🎥🔫 MEDO DE IR NA FAVELA? COMO É EM FLORIPA/SC
Over time more-durable materials such as brick, cinder blocks, and sheet metal are incorporated. The lack of infrastructure gives rise to improvised and jerry-rigged plumbing and electrical wiring. Often water must be ported great distances, and rudimentary methods of waste disposal pose health hazards. As a result of the crowding, unsanitary conditions, poor nutrition, and pollution, disease is rampant in the poorer favelas, and infant mortality rates are high.
A wide variety of small businesses exist in favelas and serve the needs of the communitybut the favelas are also frequently crime-ridden and have long been dominated by gangs immersed in illegal drug trafficking. Police presence is sporadic, and local militias have developed in response to the gangs—only to supplant them in some cases in exploiting the faveladosas the residents of the favelas are known.
An array of social and religious organizations have also developed in favelas, as have associations targeted at obtaining rights and services. Over the years the Brazilian government has taken a number of different approaches in dealing with favelas, from programs to eradicate the favelas to efforts to provide or improve infrastructure and permanent housing.
Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Favela Brazilian shantytown. Written By: Jeff Wallenfeldt. See Article History. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Carnival in Brazil is an explosive release of energy, as music and dance feed exuberant street parties and parades.
Rio de Janeirocity and port, capital of the estado state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is located on the Atlantic Ocean, in the southeastern part of the tropical zone of South America, and is widely recognized….
History at your fingertips.Built from scratch in just four years, the city was a symbol of modern, rational, functional planning. So I dedicated myself to finding a new solution, something that would attract attention. A new viaduct would link with the central square at Rua Quinze de Novembro to ease traffic congestion.
The former mayor of Curitiba is speaking over the phone from his office in Curitiba, where he now directs his eponymous private architecture firm. Working, moving, living leisure Most cities in South America separate urban functions — by income, by age. Curitiba was the first city that, in its first decisions, brought everything together.
Curitiba is an unlikely setting for such radical innovation. Germans arrived in the s, Polish and Italians arrived in the s, and Ukrainians two decades later. Each group occupied a section of the city, developing their own local industries and beginning to populate the downtown area with churches, shops and restaurants.
Curitiba was quickly becoming the archetypal Brazilian mid-size city. Favelas grew around its periphery; cars jammed into its centre. He proposed transforming the Rua Quinze de Novembro from an automobile thoroughfare into a pedestrian mall. But that meant that when the shops closed down, the city centre was dead.
The shopkeepers organised resistance to the new plan, and resolved to file an injunction to stop it — a typical tactic for arresting the implementation of urban projects in Brazil. We showed them designs, information Then we realised we had to have a demonstration effect.
It will take at least four months. Democracy is a conflict that is well managed.
Story of cities #37: how radical ideas turned Curitiba into Brazil's 'green capital'
But it has to happen. Guided by this learning-by-doing philosophy, Curitiba became a laboratory for urban planning innovation. At the time, most planners were calling for the development of extensive subway systems as the cutting-edge mode of urban transport.
But Lerner was — and remains — a major advocate of surface transport, while critical of subway projects that drain public funds and disrupt city life.
If you want sustainability, cut two zeros! With the new bus transit scheme, public ridership grew steadily, as buses became both the cheapest and fastest mode of transport. But Lerner and his planners were not satisfied. In the late s, he observed that the inflow and outflow of passengers was dragging the speed of the bus at each station.
For Lerner and his team, the social implications for the city were all-important. Other projects have built on this social mission.
Alongside these efforts to clean the city were new programmes to green it. Lerner focuses less on these big projects, however, than on the smallest details of sustainable planning. But when you look at the parks, the architecture is just great, because it is silent architecture.
We bought treated, wooden poles from the energy company and used them for all the architecture in the parks — so, existing tree poles could substitute concrete poles Like I said, if you want creativity, cut some zeros!
Can it all be true? Did Curitiba really avoid so many pitfalls of planning in Latin America? But against their own conservatism, they came to like their city a lot.
But what we usually say is that the population is not made by Swiss clockmakers. Car-use is up, bike- and bus-use down, and crime statistics continue to linger around national averages.
Living in Rio
No one would be so crazy as to eliminate the pedestrian streets now, or to pull down the old buildings and construct high-rises, as they were doing in the 60s and 70s.Case study: managing rapid urban growth in a sustainable way in Curitiba, Brazil. The Rio Earth Summit of said that there was the need to move away from the unsustainable development of recent decades, which took little account of the finite nature of resources or the damage being done to our environment.
Sustainable development was seen as essential. Curitiba has suffered from all the typical problems brought by rapid urban growth:. This is a good case study as the city was located in an LEDC when it started its pathway to sustainability and shows what can be done on a budget.
It has a population of almost 2 million people. Curitiba has developed a high quality of life for its inhabitants by prioritising people over cars. Jaime Learner became mayor in the until retiring in and when elected into office he faced a plan to widen the city streets to cope with an increasing number of traffic. Learner did the opposite, he paved the street and closed it to traffic — Boulevard de Flores has since spread to span 50 blocks and is a mall in the street.
Learner also believes in participation of people in the life and development of the city, and that economic activity should not be separate from society. He feels that if all of these 3 things were addressed cities could be great places to live. By the s the population of Curitiba had grown tenfold in just 50 years and was clogged with cars. He designed a system which features. These routes had a central bus lane that was totally dedicated to 2 directional public transport; not the car.
List of favelas in Brazil
This was to speed the journey for commuters on the bus. This boosts the number of passengers per bus from 1, per day to 2, The arterial roads were also used as growth corridors of the urban and economic growth of the city. Triple articulated buses bendy buses! The buses are coloured according to their function. There is only one fare and people can change busses on the same ticket.
There are interchanges across the city so people can change directions and busses.Purell hand sanitizer msds 2019
Rapid implementation within 2 years. Learner also improved this system by designing an elevated glass boarding tubewhere people could shelter and buy their tickets, speeding up the journey. The bus doors are wider and open directly into the tube, maximising access for all types of users including the disabled. Faster loading and unloading on the bus means less idling and cuts the bus travel times.
The bus companies are paid per km driven not per passenger, this means the bus companies still want to run services on less popular routes, not argue over the more popular routes. During peak hours busses arrive every 60 seconds and are always full. Curitiba has one of the lowest rates of pollution as a result. An initial 25, passengers and that grew to over 2 million passengers.Upgrading favelas in this era was an alien concept, and demolition was seen as the best policy to handle them.Propiedades de los altramuces y contraindicaciones
Later years saw favela residents removed from their homes and pushed into inadequate residential parks and conjuntos of varying quality, often deteriorating and being abandoned several months later due to poor maintenance and corruption in the construction system.
This was one of the first examples of how inadequate public housing was for the poorer citizens in Rio. Finally, inthe first upgrade program was launched. This was significant for two main reasons; firstly, it treated favelas as public spaces that deserve respect. Secondly, this first upgrade program became the foundation, for good or for bad, of the programs that exist today. By the end of the second phase infavelas and 24 informal subdivisions had been urbanized with new childcare centers, paved roads, training in hygiene and community development, computer centers, and land titling.Geth mining
Acaria favela with one of the lowest UN Human Development Index levels in Rio, benefited from these changes in infrastructure.
However, poor maintenance and low quality work led to shortcomings such as new pavements being paved over old ones, resulting in rainwater running into houses due to the elevated sidewalks. A study in by International American Development Bank showed that the improvements also had no effect on mortality rates from vector-borne diseases. It was to reach favelas and provide a global scale model of how to handle informal settlements. After a series of setbacks and delays, the firms involved in the construction were given the green light.
The work involved qualitative evaluation, surveys with residents and focus group brainstorming. Residents presented ideas to the City Council, showcasing the city and favelas working together in a partnership. However, things dwindled from there. At the end ofone favela, after being evaluated and engaged in the initial improvement process, was told that its residents had to leave.
By Marchthere were still no upgrades made. In fact, many upgrades happening in the favelas outside of the program were labeled Morar Carioca by the government, even though they were funded by other sources. Overall, the Morar Carioca has barely been implemented and whether it will be in the future is unclear. Yet the initiative served to show the impact such upgrades can have on favelas if they are not carefully integrated.
The main concern of the upgrades is that they address the issues resulting from inadequate public housing, rather than the conditions that created them. This means that many residents can no longer afford to live in their homes after the upgrades due to a raise in house prices.
Whilst the upgrades look great on paper and have even had positive impacts in water and sewerage systems, the reality is that they are complex to implement to the point where ideas have just remained ideas and upgrade programs have actually led to home removals, particularly through gentrification. Yet progress is slow and stilted in reality, even if the intentions are there. Select currency. At their core, favelas have always reflected issues of inequality and poverty, with some attempts being made to improve their conditions.
Yet just how successful have these upgrades been?The Amazon rainforest, samba, Bossa Nova, Carnival… Brazil is famous for its spicy, friendly culture and some of the most diverse ecology on Earth! You'll live in Copacabana or Ipanema and do valuable work in impoverished "favelas" in and around Rio.
Looking for a wildlife program?
Our program near Curitiba has been a favorite for years! The organization that runs this property has painstakingly replaced non-native plants with indigenous species over the last fifteen years, and now the sanctuary is home to parrots of all colors, tortoises, tapirs, bush dogs, ocelots, pumas, jaguars, spider monkeys, and dozens of other types of animals.
Some of the animals were the victims of abuse or found injured, but many of the valuable animals were rescued from the illegal pet trade. For that reason, the park is closed to the general public and the entrance is not marked. ELI volunteers help with the following activities: feeding the animals, cleaning enclosures, breeding programs, planting, monitoring behavior, assisting the full-time biologist, and visiting researchers and permanent staff as needed.
Accommodations in our lovely guest house are provided on-site, along with a fully stocked fridge so that volunteers can cook all of their meals. The minimum stay is 2 weeks. Click here. After you fill out the Application Form on our website, our Application Advisor will be in touch to help you with the next steps.
Short-term intensive English classes enable favela residents to prepare for the job market, school exams, and to master areas of specific interest.
Basic Portuguese is required for this program. The intensive nature allows short-term volunteers to have a bigger impact on their students than most programs. Are you athletic? The therapeutic value of sports can be life-changing in the favelas.
Help empower youth through participation in sports. Soccer, volleyball, tennis and other sports are offered at our partner schools. Get involved! Are you creative? Do you have a skill that you can share with others? Can you teach art? Work with art students to develop their technique and refine their vision. Would you like to do your own art? Organizations are creating murals in the favelas as part of their restoration efforts.
You can literally leave your mark on Rio. How cool is that? Your days will include playing, nurturing, helping with meals and naps, tutoring, and providing general classroom assistance. A great gig if you like working with kids! Computers are such a part of our daily lives that it is hard to imagine that many residents of the favelas do not yet know how to turn on a computer, open a program, or conduct online research.While the country experienced extraordinary economic growth in the past decade, growing 4 percent per year between andthese rates have fallen to just 1.
If anything, this decline should prompt investigation beyond the pristine beaches and sleek high-rises that have given Brazilian urban life a glamorous aura. Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, the two biggest cities in Brazilwith populations numbering approximately 11 million and 6 million respectively, have, in particular, captivated international travelers with increasing prosperity and abundant cultural amenities.
With more perceived opportunities and advantages in urban areas, Brazilians themselves have also flocked to these two metropolises in search of better lives with 80 percent of Brazilians now living in urban areas.
While these ascending cities seem to have garnered attention for all the right reasons, they also contain considerable eyesores; ostracized to the outskirts or huddled in the heart of downtown, dense slums, or favelas, stifle Brazilian cities. They first appeared in Rio de Janeiro around the turn of the 20th century as civil war veterans returned home without government assistance.
The favelas continued to expand in Brazilian cities as migrant workers settled in Sao Paolo and Rio in search of opportunity and failed to find adequate housing. In Rio, favelas concentrated next to affluent communities and followed the impoverished up the sharp slopes, while in Sao Paolo the favelas formed on the margins of the city. Over the years, a lack of public services and precarious siting has literally eroded communities as mudslidesand wiped away favelas.
Today, favelas have become an unfortunate and noticeable part of Brazilian life, indicative of an overwhelming housing crisis. Overall, Brazil has a housing deficit of 7 million units and 20 percent of its total population lives in inadequate housing. Those who have resigned to these slums must essentially live without infrastructure. Most favelas lack effective sewage systems, access to potable water and waste management systems.
The communities have become so densely built up, that modern roads and utilities are nearly impossible to install. As areas with little government regulation, favelas also serve as ideal crime havens. Drug dealings and gang violence plague these secluded streets and have proven notoriously hard to snuff out. In the late 90s, the homicide rate in the Diadema favela of Sao Paulo averaged one murder per day. Obviously, confronting the issue of the favela has become a daunting task.
The Brazilians learned early that the most effective strategy was, ironically, to leave them standing. In the s, after years of demolition, the Brazilian government realized that slum upgrading was more humane and cost-efficient than rebuilding them.
In order to transform favelas into safer, and more hygienic communities, the city officials of Sao Paolo and Rio de Janeiro have employed a surprising set of methods.
Not only does this provide the impoverished with dignity, but it also allows the cities greater regulation of the favelas. Along with increased property rights come building safety codes, taxes and public services and utilities that can benefit the community.
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